PAS 7055:2021 – Button and coin batteries – Safety requirements.
Button and Coin Battery ingestion – testbipbadev2021-11-03T10:12:26+00:00
BIPBA has worked alongside industry stakeholders such as CAPT, British Retail Consortium and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accident to develop Publicly Available Standard 7055:2021 which looks to address the safety issues that can be posed by button and coin batteries, and to provide a consistent approach for products that contain these batteries.
BIPBA was instrumental in the design of the PAS document which outlines requirements for battery manufacturers and the manufacturers of products containing batteries. These requirements including the placing of warnings on batteries, battery packaging and on products that contain these batteries, and testing requirements for products containing button and coin batteries.
Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 7055 aims to address safety issues posed by button (non-lithium) and coin (lithium) batteries, and to provide a consistent approach for products that contain these batteries. The PAS sets out required warnings on batteries, battery packaging and on products that contain these batteries. It sets out requirements for manufacturers of batteries, manufacturers of consumer products containing such batteries and distributors. The PAS does not cover batteries for professional and industrial use or zinc air batteries.
The main PAS requirements for manufacturers of batteries are summarised below:
In the PAS, a button battery is defined as a ‘small round battery where the overall height is less than the diameter and having an electrochemical system that does not contain lithium’ (Source: BS EN IEC 62115:2020+A11:2020, 3.6.3)
A coin battery is defined as a ‘small round battery where the overall height is less than the diameter and having an electrochemical system that does contain lithium’ (Source: BS EN IEC 62115:2020+A11:2020, 3.6.4).
For the purposes of the PAS, where the term battery is used it includes button and coin battery.
Child-resistant packaging for batteries
The packaging for lithium coin batteries (regardless of size) and button batteries greater or equal to 16 mm in diameter shall conform to, as applicable to at least one of the following standards:
BS EN IEC 60086-4:2019;
BS EN ISO 8317:2015;
BS EN 862; and
USA:16 CFR §1700.15
Packaging design for button batteries < 16 mm should also be assessed against these requirements and ease of opening and the associated packaging design should be assessed for elderly people and other consumers in accordance with BS EN ISO 17480.
One of the safety signs shown in Figure 3 shall be applied to batteries 20 mm or greater in diameter. The safety sign shall be durably and indelibly marked, with no colour required.
Figure 3 – Safety signs for use on batteries
Safety signs are specified for batteries with a 20 mm or greater diameter, as it is not possible to include on smaller batteries. If this does become a feasible option, it should be assessed for all battery sizes. Engraving, etching, embossing or stamping can also be used.
The industry takes battery safety seriously. BIPBA continues to raise awareness of the issues associated with children accidentally swallowing these types of batteries through a variety of awareness raising programmes.
Button and coin cell batteries pose a potential risk if swallowed by a child. In partnership, BIPBA and CAPT have created a number of resources which aim to inform parents and clinicians about the potential risks of these batteries, and how to minimise the chances of accidents occurring in the home.
Button batteries are small, round, silver-coloured batteries that come in many different sizes and types. They power many of devices from remote controls, key fobs, watches to toys. Most button batteries pass through the body without a problem, however in very young children they can pose a risk if ingested.
Lithium button batteries (often called ‘coin batteries’ or ‘coin cell batteries’) are more powerful than button batteries and are also bigger in size. The larger lithium coin cell battery – for example a 3V CR2025, CR2032, CR2330 or CR3032 – pose the greater risk to young children.
If a lithium coin cell battery gets stuck in the oesophagus, energy from the battery reacts with saliva to create caustic soda. This can burn through a child’s food pipe, to the main artery and may lead to serious internal burns, which can result in chronic health problems or death unless there is rapid medical intervention.
Such situations require urgent medical attention to immediately remove the battery.
We are aware of research that has been undertaken in recent years, primarily in the US, on ‘Quantum Coating’ technology for button and coin cell batteries. At this present time however, the technology is not commercially available.
Battery manufacturers are continuously investigating new battery designs to find a long-term solution.